Di3m Week 10 vocabulary

redden – to save, to rescue
aanbieden (aangeboden)- to offer
aannemen (aangenomen) – to accept
de betrekking – job, position (post)
breed – broad, wide
de cd – CD
de chef – boss
de ervaring – experience
de firma – firm, company
gaan zitten – to sit down
veel gemeen hebben met iemand – to have a lot in common with someone
gemeen – nasty, malicious
de groothandel – wholesale business
de handelsreiziger – commercial traveller
de reiziger – traveller, tourist
de handel – trade, business
– isn’t it, wasn’t it, etc.
huidig – present (adj.)
de kantoorbediende – clerk
knap – clever, good-looking
de kruidenier – grocer
get luxeartikel – luxury item
de manager – manager
neerzetten – to put down
opgeven (opgegeven) – to give up
goed met iemand opschieten – get on with someone well
het personeel – staff
solliciteren – to apply
veranderen van – to change
de verkoopleider – sales manager
in verwachting – expecting a baby
wegrijden – to drive off
de werkzaamheid – occupation
de winkelbediende – shop assistant
zwanger – pregnant


de kapper – hairdresser
acteren (geacteerd) – to act
de acteur – actor
bekend – famous; familiar
de chocolade – chocolate
commercieel – commercial
dichtbij – close to
gelijk hebben – to be right
het gezicht – face
grappig – funny
hoe kan dat nou! – how on earth!
iedereen – everyone
zich inleven in (ingeleefd)- identify with (get into)
missen – to lack
de pauze – interval
het publiek – audience
regenen (geregend) – rain
in de rij staan – to queue
de reclame – advert; advertising
spontaan – spontaneous
het theater – theatre
de theatergroep – theatre group
het toneel – stage
het toneelstuk – play
uitgeven (uitgegeven) – spend
verdienen (verdiend) – to earn
voorkomen (voorgekomen) – appear; occur
voorkomen – to prevent
het komt mij bekend voor – it seems familiar to me

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Di3m Week 9 vocabulary

de kapper – hairdresser
slim – clever, smart
tevreden – satisfied


durven – to dare
hoeven –  be necessary (used only in a negating sentence)
proberen – to try
de bliksem – lightning
de boot – boat
de tocht – trip
een boottocht maken – to go on a boat trip
de broek – trousers
de bruiloft – wedding
de cent – cent
de das – tie
deftig – smart, respectable
dom – stupid
er – there
eruitzien – to look, to appear
de handtas – handbag
het hemd – shirt
de hoed – hat
de hoek – corner
hoezo? – What do you mean?
de jas – coat
het jasje – jacket
jonge jonge! – goodness me!
kijken – to look
leren – leather (adj.)
net – neat, smart
overhebben – have left over (overgehad)
overhouden – to save (overgehouden)
overreden – persuade (overreed)
het pak – suit
speciaal – special
geen sprake van – out of the question
stomen – dry-clean (gestoomd)
de televisie – television
verbaasd – amazed
het weekend – weekend
zomerkleren – summer clothes
roepen – cry, shout
zwemmen – to swim
groeien – grow, develop
knap – good-looking

Common verbs as auxiliary verbs

Many common verbs in Dutch can serve as auxiliary verbs. In such a case they are used together with an infinitive form of some other verb. The auxiliary verb takes the second place in a sentence and agrees with the subject. The infinitive is always in the last place and may or may not be preceded by te:

Hij probeert te werken. — He is trying to work.

1. When the verbs from the list below are used as auxiliaries, no te is required before the infinitive.

blijven
doen
gaan
helpen
horen
komen
laten
leren
vinden
voelen
zien
Examples:
Hij blijft staan. — He is standing still.
Het doet me lachen. — It makes me laugh.

Like modals, to form the perfect tense the verbs of this type use infinitives instead of the past participles.

Ik heb mijn schoenen laten repareren. — I have had my shoes repared.
Zij is komen helpen. — She came to help.


2. The list below contains the most important auxiliary verbs which requre te before the infinitives.

beginnen begin
durven dare
hoeven is used as negative of moeten, for example: Dat hoef je niet te doen. You don’t have to do that.
hopen hope
liggen when used as auxiliary, often has a meaning of the English verb “to be”, for example: Zij ligt te slapen. — She is sleeping.
proberen try
staan often means “to be”, for example: Zij staan in de keuken te praten. — They are talking in the kitchen.
vergeten forget
weten know. Sometimes is translated as “to manage to”
zitten often is translated as “to be”

Perfect tense
The regular formula for the perfect tense is :
hebben/zijn + past participle + te + infinitive

Ik ben vergetten te schrijven. — I forgot to write.
Hij heeft geprobeerd me op te bellen. — He tried to call me.

op te bellen  — the infinitive of a separable word becomes separated with te.


In case of perfect tense the following verbs have exceptional behaviour:
durven, hoeven, liggen, staan and zitten.

They form the perfect tense the same way as modals — the past participle is replaced by the infinitive and te is dropped:

Wij hebben naar de radio zitten luisteren. — We were (sitting) listening to the radio.

The future tense

To talk about future a construction of auxiliary verb zullen + infinitive is used: Zij zullen lezen. — The will read. In Dutch zullen is used for both shall and will.

ik zal wij zullen
jij zal/zult jullie zullen
u zal/zult u zal/zult
hij zal zij zullen

In case of inversion: jij zultzul jij

Zullen behaves much like kunnen, moeten, mogen and willen: it agrees with the subject and occupies the second place in the sentence, while infinitive goes in the end of a sentence.

Ik zal het vandaag lezen. — I shall read this today.
Je zult dat boek nergens krijgen. — You will not get that book anywhere.

Zullen often implies an intention or a promise:
Ik zal morgen thuis blijven. — I will stay home tomorrow.


The future in Dutch can also be expressed using gaan.
Ik ga morgen een nieuwe boek kopen. — I am going to buy a new book tomorrow.
Gaat u in Rotterdam wonen? — Are you going to live in Rotterdam?


Another way of expressing the future is to use the present with words, pointing to the future:
Ik ben morgen op werk. — Tomorrow I am at work.

Adjectives as nouns

1. When referring to people: de + adjective + e
rijk (rich) → de rijke (the rich person/man/woman/etc)
dik (fat) → de dikke (the fat person/man/woman/etc)

2. When talking about abstract: het + adjective + e
leuk (nice) → het leuke (the nice thing)
goed (good) → het goede (the good thing, the good)
kwaad (bad) → het kwade (the evil)

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs

Here’s a little post about two types verbs. They exist in the other languages as well. Understanding these two types is required to get through the vocabulary of week 8 in Di3M.

  1. The player hit the ball.
  2. The bird sang.

What are transitive verbs?
Transitive verbs are action verbs that have an object to receive that action. In the first sentence above, the direct object ball received the action of the verb hit.
Some more examples of transitive verbs: I rode the bicycle. I moved the chair.

What are intransitive verbs?
Intransitive verbs are action verbs but unlike transitive verbs, the do not have an object receiving the action. Notice there are no words after the verb sang.
Some more examples of intransitive verbs: I laughed. The sun set.

This post was based on http://www.k12reader.com/transitive-and-intransitive-verbs/.
Click the link above for more details and examples.

Separable verbs

I mentioned the inseparable verbs earlier. For example, vertrekken. The prefix ver- is never separated from the rest of the word. But now it’s time for the opposite type — the separable verbs. The prefixes of these verbs separate and move around a sentence.

The infinitive form is always a single word. The added prefix change the meaning of the base verb:
gaan
— to go
meegaan
  — to go along (with)
uitgaan — to go out
weggaan — to go away

In the present tense the verb remains in the second position in a sentence, while prefix goes to the final position:

weggaan: Zij gaat vandaag weg. — She’s going away today.

To form a question the subject and the verb should be swapped:
meegaan: Ga je vanavond met on mee? — Are you coming with us tonight?

The past participle has -ge- inserted between the prefix and the verb:
meegegaan
uitgegaan
weggegaan

opbellen: Ik heb hem gisteren opgebeld — I called him yesterday.
aankomen: Zij zijn vanochtend op het station aangekomen. — They arrived at the station this morning.

The prefixes in the table below are always separable:

prefix infinitive past participle translation
 af- afmaken afgemaakt to finish
 in-  inbreken ingebroken to break in
 mee-  meenemen meegenomen to take along
 op-  opeten opgegeten to eat up
 tegen-  tegenkomen tegengekomen to meet, to run into
 toe-  toenemen toegenomen to increase, to grow
 uit-  uitsteken uitgestoken to hold out one’s hand

The following prefixes are separable when stressed but inseparable when unstressed: aan-, door-, om-, onder-, over-, voor-

Stressed and separable

prefix infinitive past participle translation
 aan- aankomen aangekomen to arrive
 om- ombrengen omgebracht to kill
 voor- voorstellen voorgesteld to represent, to propose, to suggest

Unstressed and inseparable

prefix infinitive past participle translation
 aan- aanvaarden aanvaard to accept
 om- omarmen omarmd to embrace
 voor- voorkomen voorkomen to prevent