I found out that the verb “mogen” has three possible forms of past participle:
imperfect: mocht / mochten
past participle: gemogen / gemocht / gemoogd
Most people prefer to use gemogen, but all the three forms are valid and in use.
Based on “Dutch: A Comprehensive Grammar” by Bruce Donaldson.
I’ve noticed that some words, which seem to have Latin origin, form their plurals in an unusual way:
To form a superlative of an adjective we just add -st in the end:
groot → grootst
klein → kleinst
However, if an adjective ends in -isch or -st it’s better to use meest in front in order to form superlative:
fantastisch → meest fantastisch
juist → meest juist (correct → most correct)
And the irregular ones to make it look complete (together with the comparatives):
goed → beter → best — good
graag → liever → liefst — gladly
veel → meer → meest — much
weinig → minder → minst — few
I’ve collected some nouns which are always plural in English but are singular in Dutch.
de bril – glasses
de schaar – scissors
de broek – trousers
de spijkerbroek – jeans
het broekje – briefs, panties, knickers
het spijkerbroekje – 🙂
de buigtang – pliers
de politiek – politics
de pyjama – pyjamas
It’s probably a pure coincidence that they are ‘de’ nouns (except the diminutives of course).
Discovered a reference guide to modern Dutch grammar on Google Books:
“Dutch: A Comprehensive Grammar” by Bruce C. Donaldson
I hope I’ll get myself a hardcopy and will read it through thoroughly some day 🙂
I’ve learnt that sometimes the infinitive of verbs can be used as a noun in Dutch. And in this case it behaves like a neuter one, so we use “het” as its article.
Examples (taken from here):
Het eten van varkensvlees is verboden. – Eating pork is not allowed.
Het drinken van alcohol is toegestaan. – Drinking alcohol is allowed.
The verbs can also behave like adjectives, but I am too sleepy already to write about it at the moment. The details can be found here: http://www.heardutchhere.net/duverbs.html#NounsAdjectives
The word “zat” is interesting.
First of all, it’s the past tense form of “zitten” (to sit). But that’s pretty obvious.
Using this word I can also express being fed up with something:
het zat zijn – to be fed up (with something):
Ik ben het zat! – I am fed up with it!
Ben m’n werk zo zat! – I am so fed up with my work.
Ik ben de middelmatigheid echt zat. – I am really fed up with mediocrity.
Ben jij het ook zat? – 🙂
Ik ben jullie praatjes zat! – I am fed up with your talking!
Ben jij het zat om steeds harder te werken maar niet meer geld over te houden? – Are you fed up with working harder and harder but not having more money left?
And another meaning of “zat” is “drunk”.
Zo zat als een aap – drunk as a monkey (from a wonderful song “Club Insomnia” by Spinvis).