Conjunctions

Coordinating conjunctions

The coordinating conjunctions are:
en – and
dus – thus, so
maar – but
of – or
want – because, for

The coordinating conjunctions join two clauses (“sentences”) of equal importance:
De hond speelt en de kat slaapt. – The dog is playing and the cat is sleeping.
Rijd je mee of blijf je thuis? – Are you taking a ride with us or are you staying home?
Ik hoor je niet want de muziek is zo luid. – I can’t hear you because the music is so loud.


Subordinating conjunctions

The subordinating conjunctions are:
dat – that
nadat – after
omdat – because (unlike want, it is used to answer the question “why”).
totdat – until
voordat – before
hoewel – although
nu – now that
of – whether
terwijl – while
zoals – as
als – if, when
wanneer – whenever, when
toen – when (points to an event in the past. Used with past simple and past perfect only)

1. als and waneer are used to refer to something what has yet to happen:
als zij komt… = wanneer zij komt… (when she comes …)

2. als and waneer are used to refer to something what happens repeatedly:
als de zon schijnt, voel ik me gelukkig = wanneer de zon schijnt, voel ik me gelukkig (When/whenever the sun shines I feel happy).

Adjectives in front of the nouns

When an adjective follows a noun its usual form is used:
De auto is klein. Deze boeken jizn duur. Jouw tuin is mooi.


When an adjective is placed in front of a noun, an -e ending must be added:

de kleine auto
deze dure boeken
jouw mooie tuin.

Mind the spelling change:  duur → dure, groot → grote, wit → witte, dik → dikke


No -e is added to an adjective when:

1. it is goes before a neuter singular noun without an article:
Het weer → mooi weer
Het water → koud water

2. A neuter singular noun us preceded by een, geen, veel
een aardig meisje
geen groot huis
veel warm water


Adjectives which end in -en never add -e. Examples:
gebroken – broken
gesloten – closed
gouden – golden
houten – wooden
open
zilveren

een houten bed – a wooden bed
de zilveren ring – the silver ring


linker (left) and rechter (right) never add -e, but almost always are joined to a noun that follows them:
de linkerarm – the left hand
de rechterhand – the right arm


If a noun is ommitted, an adjective still adds -e according to the rules above:
–  Koop je een jurk?
– Ja, ik neem de rode.

– Neemt u een groot glas wijn of een klein?

ont-

I’ve found out that if a verb starts with “ont-” it could be one of the two following cases:

1. Adds “away”, “un-” or “release” to the meaning of a verb
nemen – to take
ontnemen – to take away, to deprive

doen – to do
ontdoen – to undo, to discard


2. Indicates the beginning of action or changing of the state
branden – to burn, to be on fire
ontbranden – to ignite, to flame up

staan – to stand
ontstaan – to come into being, to arise, to originate, to start